Posts tagged sustainablesupplychain

Is Circular Progress in Fashion Moving Forward or Far Away?

Introduction

The fashion industry fuels a linear economy with waste greater than $460B of value each year through unsustainable disposal of clothing (Ellen MacArthur Foundation, 2017). Characterized as one of the most polluting and wasteful industries, it consumes 98 million tonnes in non-renewable resources, 93 billion cubic metres of water, and 53 metric tons of fibre to produce clothes used for a short time, after which 13% of the total material input is recycled and 73% of the materials are sent to a grave via landfill or incineration (Ellen MacArthur Foundation, 2017). One estimate suggests that as global population grows to 16% by 2030, the mass-consumption of clothing will grow 65% as 3 billion people move into the middle class (Rosa, 2016).

Reimagining the current take-make-dispose linear process, a circular economy (CE) model demonstrates an opportunity to prevent value leakage by decoupling economic activity from the consumption of finite resources, including shrinking or decreasing use, slowing, and closing material loops as depicted in Figure 1 (Ellen MacArthur Foundation, 2015). This analysis will explore circular approaches that collectively address system-level waste in the textile and clothing system, and the effectiveness of each approach in the acquisition of materials, production of goods, consumption, and disposal.

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Figure 1: Outline of a Circular Economy (Ellen MacArthur Foundation, 2017)

Circular Economy Approaches

According to the Ellen MacArthur Foundation (2017), “A circular economy is restorative and regenerative by design and aims to keep products, components and materials at their highest utility and value at all times, distinguishing between technical and biological cycles.” It represents a paradigm shift in the way products are designed, manufactured, used, and recovered, beyond reducing the negative impacts of the linear economy (Lacy & Rutqvist, 2015). The following CE approaches, particularly when used together, can reduce waste and impact to natural systems throughout the entire textile and clothing system.

Product Design

CE starts with designing products with zero waste, understanding material inputs and dynamics, planning for asset recovery, and considering the total cost of ownership in a product’s lifecycle (Rydberg, 2016). Design also includes development of product lines that meet demand without deteriorating assets. CE design must source material from within regenerative loops, rather than from linear flows and enable businesses to develop a revenue model that generates value across the supply chain as depicted in Figure 2 (PWC, 2017). This may include designing products to last longer, with higher quality specs, and that are easily repairable by the customer.

Figure 2: Value Leakage in Linear v. Circular Economy Model (PWC, 2017)

Recovery and Recycling

CE views recovery and recycling waste as a resource holistically integrated into the business model, not as an external problem (Rydberg, 2016). Upcycling converts an old product or material into something of higher valuable, while downcycling deconstructs the properties of a material for reuse (Lacy & Rutqvist, 2015). Conceptually, reuse enables the mining of resources from current products, repurposing material inputs previously funded (PWC, 2017). One variation includes recovering end-of-life products that recapture value in an actor’s own closed loops or any actor’s open loops as depicted in Figure 2 (PWC, 2017). A second variation recovers waste and by-products from a company`s own production process and operations to recapture value (Marino & Pariso, 2016). Therefore, the CE model can generate a revenue stream from large amounts of inefficiency in waste and disposal that are valuable to the broader supply chain or another actor (Marino & Pariso, 2016).

Raw Materials and Innovation

Disassembling a garment for reuse and recycling can be labor intensive and ineffective (Rosa, 2016). Current linear business models rely on large quantities of natural resources. Little or no control over price and supply of commodities forces companies to accept the risk of fluctuations affecting raw material acquisition and production, and mitigate risk or remove it from the supply chain (PWC, 2017). Integrating CE in sourcing and procurement risk management strategy provides, “a more predictable, long-term, cost-effective source for the energy or materials” (Lacy & Rutqvist, 2015, p. 36). Additionally, advances in raw material innovation fuel eco-design and feed CE loops across the supply chain. Examples of innovation include: a dissolving thread called Smart Stitch that aids in recycling, Crop-A-Porter that makes fabric out of crop waste, a compostable clothing called Algae Apparel, and a design that uses mycelium to grow clothing (Sandvik, 2017).

Product Life Extension

Product Life Extension (PLE) lengthens a product’s useful lifecycle by generating revenue through longevity instead of volume; an example is selling a product second hand, or repurposing it until worn out. Manufacturers leverage human behavior and consumerism in the form of trade-in or buy back models. Additionally, companies help customers extend PLE with repairs, maintenance services, care guidelines, and DIY repair alternatives.

Policy and Regulations

Governments and regulators, particularly in Europe, are rallying to enable the CE. Broad changes include eco-design directives, green public procurement, extended producer responsibility, and taxation mechanisms. Promoting longer product lifetimes, defining sustainable performance criteria, a standard of labeling, metrics to define circularity, and avoiding hazardous substances progress the CE model through legislation and compliance.

Sustainable thought leader Walter Stahel suggests leveraging policy and taxation, “That legal considerations, especially taxing systems have to be reconsidered. If we had ‘sustainable taxation’, a tax on non-renewable resources and no tax on renewable resources, where human labor is a renewable resource, it would give activities of the circular economy an immediate incentive” (Sustainable Taxation, n.d.). As depicted in Figure 1, the smallest loops create the highest social benefits because they are labor intensive (Ellen MacArthur Foundation, 2017). Another key component of sustainable taxation is value added tax (VAT). Since all the activities of a circular economy inherently maintain value, actors who adapt CE approaches should not have to pay VAT. “This concept has been accepted in principle by the UK treasury and several other European countries, such as in Scandinavia, where there is 25% VAT. By not levying VAT on repairs, re-marketing or re-manufacturing of goods, you would create a clear signal to business that it’s beneficial to get involved in the sustainable activities of the circular economy” (Stahel, 2013, p. 2).

Certifications play a major role in CE because they validate the quality and sustainability in the complex, multi-tier process of a fabric (Sandvik, 2017). Although a single commodity is certified, there are factors that influence the total life cycle assessment of feedstock. Several organizations including the Global Organic Textile Standard, Oeko-Tex, Made in Green, and the Better Cotton Initiative define high-level requirements in environmental criteria, technical quality, and minimal social criteria in the supply chain of organic textiles’ to be certified. Standardizing disclosures and labels for eco-compliant products facilitate trust between actors upstream in raw material acquisition through production, and downstream to distributors, retailers, and consumers (Rosa, 2016). Alignment of power and incentives between actors is critical to improve cross-cycle and cross-sector performance.

Sharing Platform and Product as a Service

The sharing platform business model simplifies ownership through channels of renting, sharing, swapping, lending, gifting, or bartering of resources and allows businesses to expand into new markets (Lacy & Rutqvist, 2015). Consumers choose sharing platforms for convenience, diversity, lower price, and better product or service quality (Lacy & Rutqvist, 2015). The product-as-a-service (PaaS) model offers an alternative for products with high costs and high operating costs where consumers are users not owners. PaaS user adoption influences include infrequent use, lack of capacity, and unaffordability. Product design and quality are critical to performance because “quality degradation, short lifespan, low utilization rate and low recycling or return can directly impact a company`s bottom line” (Lacy & Rutqvist, 2015, p. 103).

 Changes in Human Behavior

Customer behavior is evolving and demand is increasing for sustainable and responsible products. Manufacturing quality products coupled with access to new CE business models transforms the perception of clothing as a disposable item to being a durable product as described in Figure 3, ‘Customer Personas and Access Model Types in a New Textiles Economy’ (Ellen MacArthur Foundation, 2017). Shifting the consumption of fast fashion to purchasing green garments, while increasing garment lifecycle and the number of wears, could be the most powerful way to capture value, reduce pressure on resources, and decrease negative impacts. For example, if the number of times a garment is worn is doubled, on average GHG emissions would be 44% lower (Ellen MacArthur Foundation, 2017).

Figure 3: Customer Personas and Access Model Types in a New Textiles Economy (Ellen MacArthur Foundation, 2017)

Collaborative Supply Chains

Adopting a circular model is gaining momentum as actors across the supply chain agree to share the cost and benefits of innovation and product design (Lacy & Rutqvist, 2015). To optimize material flows, supply chain actors must improve how they trace material flows, which includes in-depth information sharing, often times with competitive overlap that includes design, pricing, costs, volumes, lead times, and supplier terms. The Higg Index is a “self-assessment tool that empowers brands, retailers and facilities of all sizes, at every stage in their sustainability journey, to measure their environmental and social and labor impacts and identify areas for improvement” (Sustainable Apparel Coalition, 2018). “Using the Higg Index is the most adapted and reliable way to measure textile value chains, manage their impact and to finally create a common language on sustainability practice” (Sustainable Apparel Coalition, 2018).

Circular Approaches: Moving Forward or Far Away?

The Ellen MacArthur foundation estimates that “CE could deliver $1.8 trillion for Europe by 2030” (2017) with “savings in materials alone could exceed $1 trillion a year by 2025”. Although the CE approaches outlined herein are beneficial, when applied separately in a global trading environment, they are insufficient to move forward because they address only certain parts of the transition, products, process, policy, or actor in the supply chain. Largely, the textile and clothing system is directed by compliance rather than innovation, with exceptions like Levi’s, Nike, and Patagonia to name a few. Many companies try to be “less bad” by optimizing the wrong system, using less input, less energy, and less hazardous materials, striving for eco-efficiency (Braungart & McDonough, 2002).

Consumerism and mass-production create bad demand and economic signal inputs that do not encourage efficient resource use, pollution mitigation, or space for CE innovation. In developing countries, mass production of cheap, fast fashion creates Gross Domestic Product and influences the quality of life for citizens. Globalization and cost competitiveness force production economies of scale, while unethical labor conditions and unsustainable business practices are necessary to compete. Developing countries lack strict standards, environmental laws, and institutions to reinforce sustainable measures. So, the traditional linear economy still has many economic advantages for actors because businesses can still externalize the cost of risk, non-compliance, and waste (Lacy & Rutqvist, 2015).

There are two key challenges: maintaining the quality of resources and keeping ownership rights to high-quality resources (Franco, 2017). Secondly, controlling the return flow and maximizing the quality of recovered resources through improving waste separation, inspection, processing and refining. For example in downcycling, fibres are recovered into materials of lower quality. At some point, fibres cannot be further cascaded and retire to a landfill (Franco, 2017). Downcycling is therefore only a mitigating factor. Product design, raw material innovation, and cooperation across the supply chain is critical for progress.

Other challenges that delay the scale and adoption of CE include insufficient skills and investment in circular product design and production that could facilitate greater re-use, remanufacture, repair and recycling (Anderson, 2016). There is an insufficient investment in the CE recycling and recovery infrastructure, which further propagates a lock-in linear mindset. Scale economies for PaaS, sharing platforms, production and recovery technologies are still comparatively immature to alternatives (Lacy & Rutqvist, 2015).

Current policies do not promote widespread end-to-end adoption of CE, slowing and closing resource flows. There are weaknesses in policy compliance in bioenergy and waste management. Potential policy actions include economic incentives, targeted and increased funding, efforts to engage and link actors across the supply chain. Collaborative supply chains have limited information, and lack no-brainer economic incentives to encourage repair and reuse (Gam, Cao, Farr, & Heine, 2008). Other policy improvements include taxes on aggregates of unsustainable materials and products, CO2 and waste disposal taxes, and landfill taxes.

Conclusion

To disrupt the current linear process for clothing, new models to access and maintain clothes are essential. Economic opportunities already exist for these approaches, and are achievable through refocused marketing, scaling sharing models, making higher quality and durability more attractive, and increasing clothing utilization further through brand commitments and policy (Sandvik, 2017).

References

Anderson, R. (2016). The Firms Planning on Making Less and Recycling More. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from http://www.bbc.com/news/business-35755492

Braungart, M., & McDonough, W. (2002). Cradle to Cradle. New York: New Point Press.

Cardoso, A. (2013). Life Cycle Assessment of Two Textile Products: Wool and Cotton. Universidade Do Porto, Environmental Engineering. U.Porto.

De Vries, B. (2013). Sustainability Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ellen MacArthur Foundation. (2015, December 9). Towards a Circular Economy: Business Rationale for an Accelerated Transition. Retrieved March 19, 2018, from https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/assets/downloads/TCE_Ellen-MacArthur-Foundation_9-Dec-2015.pdf

Ellen MacArthur Foundation. (2017, January 12). A New Textiles Economy: Redesigning Fashion’s Future. Retrieved March 20, 2018, from https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/publications/a-new-textiles-economy-redesigning-fashions-future

Franco, M. (2017). Circular Economy at the Micro Level: Dynamic View of Incumbents’ Struggles and Challenges in the Textile Industry. Journal of Cleaner Production, 168, 833-845.

Gam, H., Cao, H., Farr, C., & Heine, L. (2008). C2CAD: A Sustainable Apparel Design and Production Model. International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, 21(4), 166-179.

Harrington, L. (2013, September). Fashion Unleashed: The Agile Fashion Supply Chain. DHL Supply Chain.

Lacy, P., & Rutqvist, J. (2015). Waste to Wealth: The Circular Economy Advantage . New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Retrieved 2018, from https://www.forbes.com/sites/tomiogeron/2013/01/23/airbnb-and-the-unstoppable-rise-of-the-share-economy/#729b2ccfaae3

Maia, L., Alves, A., & Leao, C. (2013). Sustainable Work Environment with Lean Production in Textile and Clothing Industry. International Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management , 4(3), 183-190.

Marino, A., & Pariso, P. (2016, May). From Linear Economy to Circular Economy: Research Agenda. International Journal of Research in Economics and Social Sciences , 6(5), 270-281.

PWC. (2017). Spinning Around: Taking Control in a Circular Economy. Retrieved March 22, 2018, from https://www.pwc.com/gx/en/sustainability/assets/taking-control-in-a-circular-economy.pdf

Rosa, A. (2016). Circular Economy in the Clothing Industry: Challenges and Strategies. KTH Industrial Engineering and Management.

Rydberg, A. (2016). Circular Economy Business Models in the Clothing Industry. Uppsala University, Department of Earth Sciences.

Sandvik, I. (2017). Applying Circular Economy to the Fashion Industry in Scandinavia Through Textile-to-Textile Recycling. Monash University, School of Social Science.

Stahel, W. (2013, July). The Circular Economy. Retrieved from http://www.makingitmagazine.net/?p=6793

Stahel, W. (n.d.). Sustainable Taxation. Retrieved March 27, 2018, from http://www.progressiveeconomy.eu/content/sustainable-taxation

Sustainable Apparel Coalition. (2018, March 27). Retrieved from The Higg Index: https://apparelcoalition.org/the-higg-index/

Sustainable Brands. (2015, September 25). NIKE Commits to 100% Renewables, Partners With MIT Climate CoLab on Materials Innovation. Retrieved from http://www.sustainablebrands.com/news_and_views/products_design/sustainable_brands/nike_commits_100_renewables_partners_mit_climate_

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The Social Dilemma of Human Behavior & Sustainable Choices in the Fashion Supply Chain

Introduction

Although the premise of clothing characterizes a rudimentary need (Yawson, Armah, & Pappoe, 2009), the intricacies and system dynamics specific to the fashion industry’s supply chain are far from basic (Amed, Berg, Brantberg, & Hedrich, 2016). The current state of the fashion industry is challenging because factors contributing to its complexities are uncertain and constantly changing (Amed, Berg, Brantberg, & Hedrich, 2016). From the acquisition of raw materials, to manufacturing and distribution for purchase by the consumer, the fashion industry can influence sustainable practices across the global supply chain (Strahle & Muller, 2017).

Sustainability involves changing environmental dynamics that affect dimensions of ecology, economy, socio-politics, and human behavior (Joy, Sherry, Venkatesh, Wang, & Chan, 2012). Research shows an inherent dissension among some fashion consumers (McNeill & Moore, 2015), who “often share a concern for environmental issues even as they indulge in consumer patterns antithetical to ecological best practices” (Joy, Sherry, Venkatesh, Wang, & Chan, 2012). An emerging concept in industry is fast fashion, which refers to “low-cost clothing collections that mimic current luxury fashion trends and helps sate deeply held desires among young consumers in the industrialized world for luxury fashion, even as it embodies unsustainability” (Joy, Sherry, Venkatesh, Wang, & Chan, 2012).

Globalization and competition create increased financial and operational pressures in industry to reduce costs (Christopher, Lowson, & Peck, 2004). When paired with growth in human population (Strahle & Muller, 2017), scarcity of natural resources (De Vries, 2013), growth in industry (Amed, Berg, Brantberg, & Hedrich, 2016), advances in technology, consumer trends (Education Bureau, 2017), and human behavior in social dilemmas, the participants in a fashion supply chain may partake in unsustainable business practices (Chan & Wong, 2012). At the intersection of globalization, market competition, fast fashion (Joy, Sherry, Venkatesh, Wang, & Chan, 2012) and sustainability is the social dilemma of fashionable versus durable clothing. This analysis will explore the social dilemma of human behavior and sustainable choices in the fashion supply chain using the context of a pay-off matrix (De Vries, 2013).

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Social Dilemma Assessment

A social dilemma is where interdependent participants face a conflict between the maximizing personal gain and/or a collective interest (Dawes, 1980). As noted by Dr. Robyn Dawes (1980), leading psychologist and researcher, “public goods dilemmas occur when individuals can choose whether to contribute to a common pool that benefits both contributors and non-contributors alike, as long as enough choose to contribute”. Resource dilemmas are slightly different because individuals can decide how much to withdraw for personal use from a common pool that will only be maintained if withdrawals are kept to a minimum (Dawes, 1980). Public goods and resource dilemmas encompass “many of the most critical problems facing humanity, most notably those regarding resource shortages caused by overuse and failures to contribute to the common good” (Shankar & Pavitt, 2002). Moreover, research demonstrates that communication between participants has a significant effect on cooperation rates in these two types of social dilemmas (Shankar & Pavitt, 2002).

Overview of the Pay-Off Matrix

The pay-off matrix offers a way to analyze human behavior in situations of interdependence and conflict (Yawson, Armah, & Pappoe, 2009). As depicted in Figure 1, interdependent positions can range from virtuously cooperative, wherein a gain for one is a gain for the others, to a win-lose competitive position (Dawes, 1980). A decision to maximize individual gain is known as a defecting choice (Dawes, 1980), depicted as “you are the free rider” in Figure 1 (De Vries, 2013). Conversely, a win-win decision (De Vries, 2013) to maximize the gain of the collective is known as a cooperative choice (Dawes, 1980). Furthermore, “at any given decision point individuals receive higher payoffs for making selfish choices than they do making cooperative choices regardless of the choices made by those with whom they interact” (Weber, Kopelman, & Messick, 2004). The cost of the dilemma is that everyone involved receives a lower payoff by making a selfish choice (Dawes, 1980).

 

Figure 1: Pay-Off Matrix in a Social Dilemma (De Vries, 2013)

Pay-Off Matrix Participants in a Fashion Supply Chain

While enduring substantial growth over the past two decades (Strahle & Muller, 2017), the fashion industry has drastically evolved due to retail consolidation, globalization and e-commerce (Amed, Berg, Brantberg, & Hedrich, 2016). It is considered to be one of the most polluting industries in the world (Strahle & Muller, 2017). Industry and trading partners often request for participants to act sustainably (Strahle & Muller, 2017). Participants in a fashion supply chain include suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, retailers, and consumers (Strahle & Muller, 2017).

Theory and Influence in Consumer Fashion Decisions

Martin Christopher, thought leader in supply chain theory and best practice, defines fashion markets as typically exhibiting the following characteristics: short life cycles, high volatility, low predictability and high impulse purchasing (Christopher, Lowson, & Peck, 2004). A key concept in understanding the impulses of consumer purchasing is Maslow’s theory of human motivation (Chan & Wong, 2012). The theory classifies all human efforts as an attempt to fulfill one of five needs (Yawson, Armah, & Pappoe, 2009, p. 951). Figure 2 shows the hierarchical order in which these needs are connected, specifically in decisions that involve buying clothes.

Figure 2: Adaption of Maslow’s Motivational Theory in Fashion-Based Decisions (Yawson, Armah, & Pappoe, 2009, pp. 952-953)

Consumer decisions to purchase fashionable or durable clothing are also influenced by body type, age, family, lifestyle, peers, society, and consumer socialization (Yang, Song, & Song, 2017), or amount of disposable income that allows for considerations of quality and durability (Education Bureau, 2017). Other influences include values from one’s culture, environment, and value orientation (Education Bureau, 2017, p. 16). Lastly, frequency of wear and care instruction (McNeill & Moore, 2015) may influence the need for fashionable, inexpensive, and of lesser quality clothing versus durable clothing (Education Bureau, 2017, pp. 47-51).

Perspectives in the Pay-Off Matrix

Using the interdependent participants in a fashion supply chain, the over-arching perspectives and the decision to cooperate or defect in sustainable practices are shown below in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Pay-Off Matrix in a Fashion Supply Chain (De Vries, 2013)

Cooperate, Cooperate: A Win-Win Solution

When all participants cooperate, all are aligned in sustainable practices (Yang, Song, & Song, 2017). Because all parties benefit from this scenario, resolutions to the conflict are likely to be accepted voluntarily (Joy, Sherry, Venkatesh, Wang, & Chan, 2012). In this scenario, the supplier uses ethical growing conditions, labor practices, and pricing mechanisms that are passed onto the manufacturer (McNeill & Moore, 2015). The product is manufactured with considerations in sustainable design, efficient use of water and energy in textile process, chemical-free treatments, and lean waste reduction (Shankar & Pavitt, 2002). Distributors and retailers respect considerations of packaging waste, energy use in transportation and logistics (Christopher, Lowson, & Peck, 2004) and the ethical treatment of trading partners. Most importantly, the consumer uses sustainable participation across the supply chain to guide purchasing decisions. After purchase, the consumer limits the use of chemical detergents, water and energy use in care, early disposal and landfill waste, and shares the experience with others in his or her circle of influence (Yang, Song, & Song, 2017). The costs of quality and sustainable considerations are shared and accepted by each participant (Jung & Jin, 2014).

Cooperate, Defect

In this scenario, the consumer adheres to sustainable practices while the supplier, manufacturer, distributor, and retailer defect. The consumer receives a small positive individual outcome that is immediate and a large negative collective outcome (the depletion of future resources) is delayed (Shankar & Pavitt, 2002). The defectors receive a higher payoff in the short run no matter what decisions all other individuals make (Dawes, 1980). The result is that the consumers suffers or loses (Dawes, 1980). The defecting choice is known as the “dominant strategy” (Dawes, 1980). Because the dominant strategy produces less preferred outcomes, it is known to be a deficient outcome (Dawes, 1980). The costs of sustainable considerations are born by the consumer and common resource pools (Jung & Jin, 2014).

Defect, Cooperate

In this scenario, the consumer defects and is “a free-rider” (De Vries, 2013), while the supplier, manufacturer, distributor, and retailer adhere to sustainable practices. The consumer pursues individual short-term interest regardless of the impact to common resource pools in the long run (Chan & Wong, 2012). Common pool resources are available to all participants such as air, water, energy, and are increasingly in short supply (Shankar & Pavitt, 2002). When the consumer defects, resources are still available without any personal cost borne. The collective actively participates in aforesaid sustainable practices across the supply chain.

Defect, Defect: The Commons Tragedy

In this scenario called the commons tragedy (De Vries, 2013), all participants in the supply chain defect causing unsustainable outcomes in decision making as depicted in Figure 4. The concept echoes that “open-access common resource pools are exploited until the very last unit as long as someone else pays for it” (De Vries, 2013, p. 390). In a widely cited paper entitled The Tragedy of Commons (1968), the biologist Hardin suggested there is an inherent tendency amongst humans to overexploit such a shared, common, or collective resource” (De Vries, 2013, p. 390). Research related to the commons tragedy “emphasizes the role of factors that may predispose people to take risks in social dilemmas” including aforementioned theory and influence in consumer fashion decisions (Weber, Kopelman, & Messick, 2004). As Figure 4 suggests, participants may differ systematically in the way each arrives at the same decision to defect.

 

Figure 4: Unsustainable Outcomes of Decisions Made by Participants in the Fashion Supply Chain (Strahle & Muller, 2017)

Conclusion

Sustainability and ethical conduct has gained increasing importance in the fashion industry (Joy, Sherry, Venkatesh, Wang, & Chan, 2012). Many fashion companies are focusing on tactical efficiencies, implementing changes to their core operations “from shortening the length of the fashion cycle to integrating sustainable inno­vation into their core product design and manu­facturing processes (Amed, Berg, Brantberg, & Hedrich, 2016). However, although companies realize that trendy, affordable fashion raises sustainable concerns, the pressure to meet consumers demands is still influencing industry behavior (Amed, Berg, Brantberg, & Hedrich, 2016).  As demonstrated in this analysis, sustainable decisions in the textile and fashion industry can be controlled along the supply chain (Strahle & Muller, 2017). Specifically, “retailers are the link between the supplier and the consumers. They could be the ecological gatekeepers and help the relevant partners along the supply chains incorporate sustainability into the business” (Yang, Song, & Song, 2017). While the fashion supply chain and consumers continue to evolve in the progression of whether to make and/or consume fashionable or green products, the challenge to connect and meet “deeper elements of value, such as high ethical standards in sourcing, efficient use of materials, low-impact manufacturing, assembly, and distribution,” (Joy, Sherry, Venkatesh, Wang, & Chan, 2012) will remain challenging for decades to come.

References

Amed, I., Berg, A., Brantberg, L., & Hedrich, S. (2016, December). The State of Fashion. Retrieved October 29, 2017, from McKinsey & Company: https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/retail/our-insights/the-state-of-fashion

Chan, T., & Wong, C. (2012). The Consumption Side of Sustainable Fashion Supply Chain: Understanding Fashion Consumer Eco‐fashion Consumption Decision. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, 16(2), 193-212. doi:10.1108/13612021211222824

Christopher, M., Lowson, R., & Peck, H. (2004). Creating Agile Supply Chains in the Fashion Industry. International Journal of Retail Distribution Management, 32(8), 367-376. doi:10.1108/09590550410546188

Dawes, R. M. (1980). Social Dilemmas. Annual Review of Psychology, 31, 169-193.

De Vries, B. (2013). Sustainability Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Education Bureau. (2017, November 13). Consumer Behavior in Clothing Choices and Implications. Retrieved from www.hkedcity.net/res_data/edbltr-te/1-1000/…/2_Consumer_eng_Oct_2011.pdf

Joy, A., Sherry, J., Venkatesh, A., Wang, J., & Chan, R. (2012). Fast Fashion, Sustainability, and the Ethical Appeal of Luxury Brands. Fashion Theory, 16(3), 273-296. doi:10.2752/175174112X13340749707123

Jung, S., & Jin, B. (2014). A Theoretical Investigation of Slow Fashion: Sustainable Future of the Apparel Industry. (D. E. Kempen, Ed.) International Journal of Consumer Studies, 38(5), 510-519. doi:10.1111/ijcs.12127

McNeill, L., & Moore, R. (2015, May). Sustainable Fashion Consumption and the Fast Fashion Conundrum: Fashionable Consumers and Attitudes to Sustainability in Clothing Choice. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 39(3), 212-222. doi:10.1111/ijcs.12169

Shankar, A., & Pavitt, C. (2002, July). Resource and Public Goods Dilemmas: A New Issue for Communication Research. The Review of Communication, 251-272.

Social Dilemma. (n.d.). Retrieved November 7, 2017, from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_dilemma

Strahle, J., & Muller, V. (2017, October 30). Key Aspects of Sustainability in Fashion Retail. Retrieved from Springer Link: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-981-10-2440-5_2

Sustainable Apparel Coalition. (2017, November 7). The Higg Index. Retrieved from Sustainable Apparel Coalition: https://apparelcoalition.org/the-higg-index/

Weber, J. M., Kopelman, S., & Messick, D. M. (2004). A Conceptual Review of Decision Making in Social Dilemmas: Applying a Logic of Appropriateness. 8(3), pp. 281-307.

Yang, S., Song, Y., & Song, S. (2017). Sustainable Retailing in the Fashion Industry: A Systematic Literature Review. Sustainability, 9(7), 1266. doi:10.3390/su9071266

Yawson, D., Armah, F., & Pappoe, A. (2009, November). Enabling Sustainability: Hierarchical Need-Based Framework for Promoting Sustainable Data Infrastructure in Developing Countries. Sustainability, 946-959.